HTTP/1.1 — 総集的 ABNF

このページでは、 HTTP/1.1 仕様の各文書( RFC 7230 〜 7235 )の総集的文法を一括して掲載する。

ABNF リスト拡張 ( RFC 7230, 7 節 )によるすべての規則は、その節に従って,標準の ABNF 表記法に展開されている。

【 この和訳では、便宜上,原文の ABNF に編集上の手を加えている — リンクの追加 / 改行の仕方 / 重複の排除 / 他の仕様に定義される ABNF を独立の節に分離するなど。 】

他の仕様にて定義される規則

次に挙げる中核規則は、 [RFC5234] 付録 B.1 による定義から引用される:


ALPHA
   =  %x41-5A / %x61-7A
                      ; 英字( A-Z / a-z )
CR
   =  %x0D            ; carriage return
CRLF
   =  CR LF           ; Internet 標準の改行
CTL
   =  %x00-1F / %x7F  ; 制御文字
DIGIT
   =  %x30-39         ; 10 進数字( 0-9 )
DQUOTE
   =  %x22            ; 二重引用符( " )
HEXDIG
   =  DIGIT / %x41-46 / %x61-66
                      ; 16 進数字( 0-9 / A-F / a-f )
HTAB
   =  %x09            ; 水平タブ
LF
   =  %x0A            ; line feed
OCTET
   =  %x00-FF         ; 任意の 8-bit データ単位(オクテット)
SP
   =  %x20            ; スペース
VCHAR
   =  %x21-7E         ; 任意の可視 [USASCII] 文字

次に挙げる規則は、 [RFC3986] にて,同じ名前の規則として定義される:

URI-reference
    ; RFC 3986, 4.1 節
absolute-URI
    ; RFC 3986, 4.3 節
authority
    ; RFC 3986, 3.2 節
fragment
    ; RFC 3986, 3.5 節
path-abempty
    ; RFC 3986, 3.3 節
port
    ; RFC 3986, 3.2.3 節
query
    ; RFC 3986, 3.4 節
relative-part
    ; RFC 3986, 4.2 節
scheme
    ; RFC 3986, 3.1 節
segment
    ; RFC 3986, 3.3 節
uri-host
    ; RFC 3986, 3.2.2 節

次に挙げる規則は、他の仕様にて定義される:

language-tag
    ; RFC 5646, 2.1 節
language-range
    ; RFC 4647, 2.1 節
mailbox
    ; RFC 5322, 3.4 節

RFC 7230 の総集的 ABNF

次に挙げる規則は、他所にて定義される:

URI-reference, absolute-URI, authority, fragment, path-abempty, port, query, relative-part, scheme, segment, uri-host
BWS
   = OWS

Connection
   = *( "," OWS ) connection-option
     *( OWS "," [ OWS connection-option ] )

Content-Length
   = 1*DIGIT

HTTP-message
   = start-line
     *( header-field CRLF ) CRLF
     [ message-body ]
HTTP-name
   = %x48.54.54.50 ; HTTP
HTTP-version
   = HTTP-name "/" DIGIT "." DIGIT
Host
   = uri-host [ ":" port ]

OWS
   = *( SP / HTAB )

RWS
   = 1*( SP / HTAB )

TE
   = [ ( "," / t-codings ) *( OWS "," [ OWS t-codings ] ) ]
Trailer
   = *( "," OWS ) field-name
     *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name ] )
Transfer-Encoding
   = *( "," OWS ) transfer-coding
     *( OWS "," [ OWS transfer-coding ] )

Upgrade
   = *( "," OWS ) protocol
     *( OWS "," [ OWS protocol ] )

Via
   = *( "," OWS )
      ( received-protocol RWS received-by [ RWS comment ] )
     *( OWS "," [ OWS ( received-protocol RWS received-by [ RWS comment ] ) ] )

absolute-form
   = absolute-URI
absolute-path
   = 1*( "/" segment )
asterisk-form
   = "*"
authority-form
   = authority
chunk
   = chunk-size [ chunk-ext ] CRLF chunk-data CRLF
chunk-data
   = 1*OCTET
chunk-ext
   = *( BWS ";" BWS chunk-ext-name [ BWS "=" BWS chunk-ext-val ] )
     ; 挿入された 4 個の BWS は、正誤表による修正による
     ; Verified: 2016-10-07
chunk-ext-name
   = token
chunk-ext-val
   = token / quoted-string
chunk-size
   = 1*HEXDIG
chunked-body
   = *chunk last-chunk trailer-part CRLF
comment
   = "(" *( ctext / quoted-pair / comment ) ")"
connection-option
   = token
ctext
   = HTAB
   / SP
   / %x21-27 ; '!'-'''
   / %x2A-5B ; '*'-'['
   / %x5D-7E ; ']'-'~'
   / obs-text

field-content
   = field-vchar [ 1*( SP / HTAB ) field-vchar ]
field-name
   = token
field-value
   = *( field-content / obs-fold )
field-vchar
   = VCHAR / obs-text

header-field
   = field-name ":" OWS field-value OWS
http-URI
   = "http://" authority path-abempty
     [ "?" query ] [ "#" fragment ]
     ; [ "#" fragment ] の削除は、正誤表による修正による
     ; Verified: 2015-02-01
https-URI
   = "https://" authority path-abempty
     [ "?" query ] [ "#" fragment ]
     ; 正誤表による修正(同上)

last-chunk
   = 1*"0" [ chunk-ext ] CRLF

message-body
   = *OCTET
method
   = token

obs-fold
   = CRLF 1*( SP / HTAB )
obs-text
   = %x80-FF
origin-form
   = absolute-path [ "?" query ]

partial-URI
   = relative-part [ "?" query ]
protocol
   = protocol-name [ "/" protocol-version ]
protocol-name
   = token
protocol-version
   = token
pseudonym
   = token

qdtext
   = HTAB
   / SP
   / "!"
   / %x23-5B ; '#'-'['
   / %x5D-7E ; ']'-'~'
   / obs-text
quoted-pair
   = "\" ( HTAB / SP / VCHAR / obs-text )
quoted-string
   = DQUOTE *( qdtext / quoted-pair ) DQUOTE

rank
   = ( "0" [ "." *3DIGIT ] )
   / ( "1" [ "." *3"0" ] )
reason-phrase
   = *( HTAB / SP / VCHAR / obs-text )
received-by
   = ( uri-host [ ":" port ] )
   / pseudonym
received-protocol
   = [ protocol-name "/" ] protocol-version
request-line
   = method SP request-target SP HTTP-version CRLF
request-target
   = origin-form
   / absolute-form
   / authority-form
   / asterisk-form

start-line
   = request-line
   / status-line
status-code
   = 3DIGIT
status-line
   = HTTP-version SP status-code SP reason-phrase CRLF

t-codings
   = "trailers"
   / ( transfer-coding [ t-ranking ] )
t-ranking
   = OWS ";" OWS "q=" rank
tchar
   = "!"
   / "#"
   / "$"
   / "%"
   / "&"
   / "'"
   / "*"
   / "+"
   / "-"
   / "."
   / "^"
   / "_"
   / "`"
   / "|"
   / "~"
   / DIGIT
   / ALPHA
token
   = 1*tchar
trailer-part
   = *( header-field CRLF )
transfer-coding
   = "chunked"
   / "compress"
   / "deflate"
   / "gzip"
   / transfer-extension
transfer-extension
   = token *( OWS ";" OWS transfer-parameter )
transfer-parameter
   = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
    ; 正誤表に報告あり(この生成規則は "=" 以降が省略された形を表現できていない)
    ; Reported: 2016-10-22

RFC 7231 の総集的 ABNF

次に挙げる規則は、 [RFC7230] にて定義される:

BWS, OWS, RWS, URI-reference, absolute-URI, comment, field-name, partial-URI, quoted-string, token, method

次に挙げる規則も、他所にて定義される:

language-range, language-tag, mailbox
Accept
   = [ ( "," / ( media-range [ accept-params ] ) )
     *( OWS "," [ OWS ( media-range [ accept-params ] ) ] ) ]
Accept-Charset
   = *( "," OWS ) ( ( charset / "*" ) [ weight ] )
     *( OWS "," [ OWS ( ( charset / "*" ) [ weight ] ) ] )
Accept-Encoding
   = [ ( "," / ( codings [ weight ] ) )
     *( OWS "," [ OWS ( codings [ weight ] ) ] ) ]
Accept-Language
   = *( "," OWS ) ( language-range [ weight ] )
     *( OWS "," [ OWS ( language-range [ weight ] ) ] )
Allow
   = [ ( "," / method ) *( OWS "," [ OWS method ] ) ]

Content-Encoding
   = *( "," OWS ) content-coding
     *( OWS "," [ OWS content-coding ] )
Content-Language
   = *( "," OWS ) language-tag
     *( OWS "," [ OWS language-tag ] )
Content-Location
   = absolute-URI / partial-URI
Content-Type
   = media-type

Date
   = HTTP-date

Expect
   = "100-continue"

From
   = mailbox

GMT
   = %x47.4D.54 ; GMT

HTTP-date
   = IMF-fixdate
   / obs-date

IMF-fixdate
   = day-name "," SP date1 SP time-of-day SP GMT

Location
   = URI-reference

Max-Forwards
   = 1*DIGIT

Referer
   = absolute-URI
   / partial-URI
Retry-After
   = HTTP-date
   / delay-seconds
Server
   = product *( RWS ( product / comment ) )

User-Agent
   = product *( RWS ( product / comment ) )

Vary
   = "*"
   / ( *( "," OWS ) field-name *( OWS "," [ OWS field-name ] ) )

accept-ext
   = OWS ";" OWS token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]
accept-params
   = weight *accept-ext
asctime-date
   = day-name SP date3 SP time-of-day SP year

charset
   = token
codings
   = content-coding
   / "identity"
   / "*"
content-coding
   = token

date1
   = day SP month SP year
date2
   = day "-" month "-" 2DIGIT
date3
   = month SP ( 2DIGIT / ( SP DIGIT ) )
day
   = 2DIGIT
day-name
   = %x4D.6F.6E ; Mon
   / %x54.75.65 ; Tue
   / %x57.65.64 ; Wed
   / %x54.68.75 ; Thu
   / %x46.72.69 ; Fri
   / %x53.61.74 ; Sat
   / %x53.75.6E ; Sun
day-name-l
   = %x4D.6F.6E.64.61.79 ; Monday
   / %x54.75.65.73.64.61.79 ; Tuesday
   / %x57.65.64.6E.65.73.64.61.79 ; Wednesday
   / %x54.68.75.72.73.64.61.79 ; Thursday
   / %x46.72.69.64.61.79 ; Friday
   / %x53.61.74.75.72.64.61.79 ; Saturday
   / %x53.75.6E.64.61.79 ; Sunday
delay-seconds
   = 1*DIGIT

hour
   = 2DIGIT

media-range
   = ( "*/*" / ( type "/*" ) / ( type "/" subtype ) )
     *( OWS  ";" OWS parameter )

media-type
   = type "/" subtype *( OWS ";" OWS parameter )
minute
   = 2DIGIT
month
   = %x4A.61.6E ; Jan
   / %x46.65.62 ; Feb
   / %x4D.61.72 ; Mar
   / %x41.70.72 ; Apr
   / %x4D.61.79 ; May
   / %x4A.75.6E ; Jun
   / %x4A.75.6C ; Jul
   / %x41.75.67 ; Aug
   / %x53.65.70 ; Sep
   / %x4F.63.74 ; Oct
   / %x4E.6F.76 ; Nov
   / %x44.65.63 ; Dec

obs-date
   = rfc850-date
   / asctime-date

parameter
   = token "=" ( token / quoted-string )
product
   = token [ "/" product-version ]
product-version
   = token
qvalue
   = ( "0" [ "." *3DIGIT ] )
   / ( "1" [ "." *3"0" ] )

rfc850-date
   = day-name-l "," SP date2 SP time-of-day SP GMT

second
   = 2DIGIT
subtype
   = token

time-of-day
   = hour ":" minute ":" second
type
   = token

weight
   = OWS ";" OWS "q=" qvalue

year
   = 4DIGIT

RFC 7232 の総集的 ABNF

次に挙げる規則は、他所にて定義される:

OWS, obs-text, HTTP-date
ETag
   = entity-tag

If-Match
   = "*"
   / ( *( "," OWS ) entity-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS entity-tag ] ) )
If-Modified-Since
   = HTTP-date
If-None-Match
   = "*"
   / ( *( "," OWS ) entity-tag *( OWS "," [ OWS entity-tag ] ) )
If-Unmodified-Since
   = HTTP-date

Last-Modified
   = HTTP-date

entity-tag
   = [ weak ] opaque-tag
etagc
   = "!"
   / %x23-7E ; '#'-'~'
   / obs-text

opaque-tag
   = DQUOTE *etagc DQUOTE

weak
   = %x57.2F ; W/

RFC 7233 の総集的 ABNF

token から導出された すべての規則は、文字大小無視で比較されることに注意。 range-unitacceptable-ranges など。

次に挙げる規則は、他所にて定義される:

OWS, token, HTTP-date, entity-tag
Accept-Ranges
   = acceptable-ranges

Content-Range
   = byte-content-range
   / other-content-range

If-Range
   = entity-tag
   / HTTP-date

Range
   = byte-ranges-specifier
   / other-ranges-specifier

acceptable-ranges
   = ( *( "," OWS ) range-unit *( OWS "," [ OWS range-unit ] ) )
   / "none"

byte-content-range
   = bytes-unit SP ( byte-range-resp / unsatisfied-range )
byte-range
   = first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos
byte-range-resp
   = byte-range "/" ( complete-length / "*" )
byte-range-set
   = *( "," OWS )
     ( byte-range-spec / suffix-byte-range-spec )
     *( OWS "," [ OWS ( byte-range-spec / suffix-byte-range-spec ) ] )
    ; 正誤表に報告あり(リスト拡張による展開に誤りがある)
    ; Reported: 2016-05-03
byte-range-spec
   = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
byte-ranges-specifier
   = bytes-unit "=" byte-range-set
bytes-unit
   = "bytes"

complete-length
   = 1*DIGIT

first-byte-pos
   = 1*DIGIT

last-byte-pos
   = 1*DIGIT

other-content-range
   = other-range-unit SP other-range-resp
other-range-resp
   = *CHAR
other-range-set
   = 1*VCHAR
other-range-unit
   = token
other-ranges-specifier
   = other-range-unit "=" other-range-set

range-unit
   = bytes-unit
   / other-range-unit

suffix-byte-range-spec
   = "-" suffix-length
suffix-length
   = 1*DIGIT

unsatisfied-range
   = "*/" complete-length

RFC 7234 の総集的 ABNF

次に挙げる規則は、他所にて定義される:

OWS, field-name, quoted-string, token, port, pseudonym, uri-host, HTTP-date
Age
   = delta-seconds

Cache-Control
   = *( "," OWS ) cache-directive *( OWS "," [ OWS cache-directive ] )

Expires
   = HTTP-date

Pragma
   = *( "," OWS ) pragma-directive *( OWS "," [ OWS pragma-directive ] )

Warning
   = *( "," OWS ) warning-value *( OWS "," [ OWS warning-value ] )

cache-directive
   = token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]

delta-seconds
   = 1*DIGIT

extension-pragma
   = token [ "=" ( token / quoted-string ) ]

pragma-directive
   = "no-cache" / extension-pragma

warn-agent
   = ( uri-host [ ":" port ] ) / pseudonym
warn-code
   = 3DIGIT
warn-date
   = DQUOTE HTTP-date DQUOTE
warn-text
   = quoted-string
warning-value
   = warn-code SP warn-agent SP warn-text [ SP warn-date ]

RFC 7235 の総集的 ABNF

次に挙げる規則は、他所にて定義される:

BWS, OWS, quoted-string, token
Authorization
   = credentials

Proxy-Authenticate
   = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge ] )
Proxy-Authorization
   = credentials

WWW-Authenticate
   = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS challenge ] )

auth-param
   = token BWS "=" BWS ( token / quoted-string )
auth-scheme
   = token

challenge
   = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68
     / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]
credentials
   = auth-scheme [ 1*SP ( token68
     / [ ( "," / auth-param ) *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] ) ]

token68
   = 1*( ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~" / "+" / "/" ) *"="